When occlusal forces exceed the adaptive capacity of periodontium it known as “trauma from occlusion”. During chewing when the upper and lower teeth close in harmony, it known as occlusion or occlusal balance. In cases of infection or trauma; the occlusion also gets hampered and the relation of upper and lower teeth may change. Therefore this leads to a change in the occlusion or causes an occlusal imbalance. The traumatic occlusion a result of an injury caused by occlusal imbalance.
Naturally, your teeth should fit easily inside your mouth without any crowding or spacing concerns. Your teeth should not be severely tight or twisted. Your upper jaw points should slightly overlap with your lower jaw points so that the pointed ridges of your upper molars fit into the grooves of your opposite molars on the lower. Changes in alignment of your typical occlusion known as Occlusal Imbalance or Malocclusion.
Causes of Trauma from Occlusal Imbalance:
- Biting on hard or sticky objects like pan, supari, naan
- High point after dental fillings
- Tight contacts between teeth or an active fit of prosthesis
- Pathological migration due to missing teeth
- Supra eruption of teeth
- Misfit of crowns and bridges
- Plunger cusps
A dentist can help make sure that your upper teeth are properly aligned.
Signs and symptoms of Occlusal Imbalance:
- Tooth mobility and migration
- Blood in saliva and pain
- Sensitivity to hot and cold
- Wear-off of tooth facets
- Gingivitis or bleeding gums
Blood in saliva is one of the clinical signs of trauma from occlusions. Patients with trauma from occlusions usually present bony defects. At night as there is no movement of muscles and cleaning activity of saliva which leads to pooling of blood in the oral cavity. In the morning while rinsing or spitting the patient finds presence of blood in saliva.
Management of Trauma from Malocclusion!
Scaling and root planning: Thorough debridement of plaque and calculus with ultrasonic devices done to keep the surfaces clean. Reshaping, bonding, or capping of teeth required.
Although Replacing faulty restorations: Must be replaced with well-defined restorations having proper seal and contacts.
Coronoplasty /occlusal reduction: Grinding of tooth cusps done by using occlusal strips. A period of 3-4 weeks given for healing of periodontal tissues.
Splinting: Tooth mobility also restricted by splinting the mobile teeth with stable teeth. It can done by orthodontic wires, fibre splints or full bridge. Dental appliances like retainers for alignment of teeth.
Surgical procedure: For angular bone loss periodontal flap surgeries and regenerative surgeries can be performed.
Extraction: Least preferred at Royal Dental Clinics but yes! if required then an extraction of overcrowded tooth may be required.
Your dentist will typically correct malocclusion of teeth seen mainly in children and adults. Receiving early dental treatment in during childhood can help reduce the treatment duration and may lead to fewer dental concerns later on. Adults can also get good results! The earlier you treat malocclusion, the better the outcome, Alignment of your upper teeth with lower will prevent you from biting your cheeks and lips. You may be required to visit your dentist for 2-3 sittings as the bite regularly changes and adjusting the same is important.