Dental implant is an advanced way to replace missing tooth or teeth and provides a permanent solution. A titanium screw fixed into the bone around which the bone forms and the implant fused to the jaw bone. Over a period of time, crown resembling natural tooth then replaced over it.
A systematic approach followed during treatment planning for full mouth rehabilitation. The prognosis for each tooth evaluated and categorized into good, questionable, poor depending upon the condition of the present natural tooth. Factors such as amount of bone remaining around the tooth, attachment loss, mobility play an important role in treatment planning. In most cases dental implants with fixed teeth can be done in one day.
Reasons for loss of natural teeth;
Deep caries or secondary decays
Trauma or fracture
Horizontal or vertical bone loss
Based on the prognosis, your dentist decides ways to replace your missing teeth. Various options are replacement of missing teeth are:
- Crowns and bridges
- Dental implants
- Complete dentures
- Removable partial dentures
- Implant supported dentures
The survival rate of the teeth which are restored is minimal as they already compromised. But these when replaced by dental implants are fused to the jaw bone by a process called osseointegration. This helps to form healthier bone around the dental implants. This helps to keep the implant firm further aiding in mastication, occlusion and acting as a natural tooth.
Patient Case Study Dental Implants; A great way replace missing teeth.
Dental implants are a great way to replace missing teeth! The 3 types of implant include:
Endosteal Implant: Endosteal implants are the most common type of implant. Endosteum lines the inner surface of the medullary cavity of all long bones. An endosteal implant is a type of dental implant that is put into your jawbone as an artificial root to hold a replacement tooth.
Sub-periosteal Implant: They are fixed into the jaw bone but they rest on the top of the bone. Then a metal frame is placed under the gums with a post attached to it. The periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones, except at the articular surfaces (i.e. the parts within a joint space) of long bones.
Zygomatic Implant: They are the most advanced type used in virtually no bone or less bone. Therefore they are placed if there is not enough bone in maxilla to place endosteal implants.
Other techniques to improve the availability of bone which can be done either separately or along with implant placement are:
- Bone augmentation with the help of bone grafts
- Sinus lift incase of infection of less bone
- Ridge expansion
- Plasma PRP for better healing
Based on the type of quality of bone implant placement divided into:
Immediate implant placement; this done on the day of extraction
Early implant placement; after 4 – 8 weeks of soft tissue healing
Early implant placement; after 12-16 weeks of partial bone healing
Late implant placement; after complete bone healing of at least 6 months
Factors influencing survival rate
Failure rates are more in patients with diabetes, periodontal disease, low immunity, heavy smokers, reduced compliance of oral hygiene. Before planning for dental implants oral cavity should be free from periodontal disease. Hence if the implants are placed in periodontally affected sites there are higher chances of acquiring perimucositis and periimplantitis. Therefore the survival and success rates of dental implants will never outgrow the survival rate of healthy clean teeth. Whereas Dental implants serve as an excellent treatment modality and are supposed to replace missing teeth and not meant to replace natural teeth.